The Convention on Cluster Munitions
Cluster munitions were not forbidden until the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) was adopted in 2008. The CCM prohibits all use, production, transfer and stockpiling of cluster munitions for those States that ratify it. To date, 108 states have ratified or acceded to the Convention, and 13 others have signed it.
States Parties have the obligation to clear all contaminated areas, destroy their stockpiles and assist the victims of cluster munitions.
Furthermore, they commit to provide technical, material and financial assistance to other States Parties; undertake transparency measures; adopt national implementation measures; and promote universal adherence to the Convention.
Remarkable successes have been achieved thanks to the CCM: To date, 36 out 41 States Parties have collectively destroyed over 95% of their stockpile, totalling nearly 1.5 million cluster munitions/178 million submunitions. Over 400 km2 of contaminated land has been cleared and returned to affected communities for safe and productive use. Many States Parties are also successfully involving survivors in victim assistance programmes.
Nonetheless, many challenges remain: Several states have still not ratified or acceded to the
CCM, some of which are heavily contaminated by cluster munition remnants. Moreover, some states are not always in the position to implement their obligations with the necessary speed due to obstacles including financial, technological and environmental challenges, which result in delays, notably in the clearance of contaminated areas.
Every five years, the CCM convenes a Review Conference during which governments and international organizations gather to assess progress and address challenges in universalizing and implementing the Convention. The Second Review Conference of the CCM is to be held in Lausanne, Switzerland, in November 2020 and will be presided over by Switzerland.